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Please forward this error screen to 162. Canon – An official list or collection of writings that a particular religious group considers as its “core scriptures” or “authorized books,” which are used by the group as the basis for its religious beliefs, moral precepts, and communal practices. Actually, one should always ask, “Whose Bible? But remember: which books are considered part of the Bible depends on whom you ask! But again, beware: the same writing might be considered “biblical” by one group and “non-biblical” by another group! Christians accept both testaments in their Bibles.
Torah – often translated “Law,” but more accurately meaning “Teaching” or “Instruction” in Hebrew. Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings – which also contain stories of early “prophets” like Elijah, Elisha, Samuel, Nathan, etc. Several versions of the LXX have been preserved, some of which are slightly larger than others. Torah” of the HB: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. 2 Maccabees, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch – think of the mnemonic “T. OT books in Jewish, Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant versions of the Bible.
Jubilees, 1 Enoch, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, etc. They were popular among ancient Jews, and thus are very valuable for historical purposes, even if they were never considered biblical by most people. Inter-Testamental Literature – another collective term for an even broader range of Jewish literature written “between” the Old Testament and the New Testament. Philo – an important Jewish writer who lived in Alexandria in the early 1st cent.
First Jewish War against Rome, but surrendered early and then wrote a history of the “Jewish War,” as well as a large history of his people, entitled “The Antiquities of the Jews. Rabbinic Literature – various collections of Jewish writings from the 3rd through 7th centuries CE, although they contain some traditions attributed to earlier rabbis, including some famous contemporaries of Jesus. Caution: The DSS contain both biblical and non-biblical texts, but neither the Pseudepigrapha, nor the writings of Philo, Josephus, the Rabbis, or any other “Intertestamental Literature” is considered “biblical” by anyone, although some of this literature contains “biblical commentaries. Most of these writings were already considered “biblical” or “scriptural” by Christians by the end of the 2nd century. There were hundreds of other works written by Christians in the first few centuries that were not included in the New Testament.
Gospels – early Christian narratives about the words and actions, the life and death of Jesus. Synoptics in content, style, and theology. Greek between the late 60’s and early 90’s of the 1st century. Matthew and Luke, but it is now lost.
1st-century Christianity, since it focuses only on a few people and a few events from a particular perspective, but leaves out most of what we would want to know about how Christianity spread to other parts of the early Roman Empire and beyond. Acts together should be considered a two-volume work, even if the two parts are now separated by John’s Gospel. Catholic” means “universal, general”, indicating that these letters were written to a wider audience of many different Christians, not just one community. A book containing seven short letters addressed to the “Churches of Asia,” and a long series of highly symbolic “visions” attributed to a certain man named “John,” culminating in the destruction of all evil and the establishment of “a new heaven and a new earth,” and “the new Jerusalem. Apocryphal Gospels – such as the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Peter, Gospel of James, Gospel of Judas, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, etc.
Apocryphal Acts – such as the Acts of Peter, the Acts of Paul, the Acts of Thomas, the Acts of Andrew, the Acts of John, etc. Apocryphal Epistles – such as the Epistle to the Laodiceans, the Correspondence between Paul and Seneca, the Pseudo-Titus Epistle, etc. Apocryphal Apocalypses – such as the Apocalypse of Peter, the Ascension of Isaiah, the Christian Sibyllines, various Gnostic apocalypses, etc. 1945 in Upper Egypt, near the town of Nag Hammadi. Some of the earliest Ante-Nicene writers include Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp of Smyrna, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus of Lyons, etc. Byzantine Church are Athanasius of Alexandria, Basil of Caesarea, John Chrysostom, and Gregory of Nazianzus. Latin Church are Ambrose of Milan, Jerome, Augustine of Hippo, and Gregory the Great.
4th and 5th Centuries, but continuing throughout the centuries. Latin, during the 3rd and 4th centuries. NT books were translated from the original Greek texts. In other words, they were translations of translations! That is, rather than translating the book of Isaiah from its version in the Latin Vulgate or the Greek Septuagint, one should use the original Hebrew version of Isaiah.
Harpers Bible Atlas and the Macmillan Atlas of the Bible. Lexicon – a dictionary explaining the meaning of ancient Hebrew or Greek words, and usually also providing some references for where and how they are used in ancient literature. 4, 6, or 8 different ones! Our Synopsis of the Four Gospels, edited by K. English translation is usually also provided in the margins. NT include Gospels, Letters, Acts, Apocalypses, Novels, Biographies, etc.
Gospels include parables, sayings, controversy dialogues, healing miracles, exorcisms, nature miracles, etc. Jesus’ parables are about the Reign of God. Gospels’ descriptions about Jesus’ actions are better called “passages,” “paragraphs,” “stories,” or “pericopes. Ancient Versions – translations into other ancient languages, such as Latin, Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, etc. Return to the HOME PAGE of Felix Just, S. Deuteronomy 32:46-47 “Take to your heart all the words with which I am warning you today, which you shall command your sons to observe carefully, even all the words of this law. As silver tried in a furnace on the earth, refined seven times.