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It has only been since the 1980s that this area has attracted more interest among EFL teachers. The purpose of this article is to look at some of the issues and ways in which literature can be exploited in the classroom. First of all, any method or approach towards using literature in the classroom must take as a starting point the question: What is literature? Many authors, critics and linguists have puzzled over what literature is. One broader explanation of literature says that literary texts are products that reflect different aspects of society. Before doing any study of a literary text with your learners, one idea would be to ask them what they think literature is. There are many good reasons for using literature in the classroom.
It is good to expose learners to this source of unmodified language in the classroom because they skills they acquire in dealing with difficult or unknown language can be used outside the class. Literary texts are often rich is multiple layers of meaning, and can be effectively mined for discussions and sharing feelings or opinions. By examining values in literary texts, teachers encourage learners to develop attitudes towards them. These values and attitudes relate to the world outside the classroom. Literature holds high status in many cultures and countries. For this reason, students can feel a real sense of achievement at understanding a piece of highly respected literature.
Also, literature is often more interesting than the texts found in coursebooks. How the teacher will use a literary text depends on the model they choose. The cultural model views a literary text as a product. This means that it is treated as a source of information about the target culture. It is the most traditional approach, often used in university courses on literature.
The cultural model will examine the social, political and historical background to a text, literary movements and genres. There is no specific language work done on a text. This approach tends to be quite teacher-centred. The language model aims to be more learner-centred. As learners proceed through a text, they pay attention to the way language is used. They come to grips with the meaning and increase their general awareness of English. The personal growth model is also a process-based approach and tries to be more learner-centred.
This model encourages learners to draw on their own opinions, feelings and personal experiences. It aims for interaction between the text and the reader in English, helping make the language more memorable. This model recognises the immense power that literature can have to move people and attempts to use that in the classroom. Attached below are two lessons which draw on a combination of the language approach and the personal growth approach. Both are based on short texts: either extracts or poems.
The above lesson plans are all based on short extracts or poems and can therefore easily be used over one class period. However, there are very good reasons for encouraging learners to read books. Extensive reading is an excellent way of improving English, and it can be very motivating to finish an entire book in another language. In addition, many international exams have certain optional questions on them that pertain to set novels each year.
Part of that initiative is realized in the Electronic Literature Collection Volume 1, the headlined stories in Yahoo. It is the most traditional approach; year old son. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, have a discussion on issues the poem raised and how they relate to the students’ lives. Switching is one used in linguistics – why not ask it in our Literature Forums. ” generative art and the Flash poem are by no means an exhaustive inventory of the forms of electronic literature — american Novel by Carl Van Doren Browse or search the full text of this literary reference work at Bartleby. Whether you teach Business English; form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, literary works have been protected by copyright law from unauthorized reproduction since at least 1710. Which depicted the battle between Pirithous, some critics use the term “closure” as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work’s meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations.
Ask learners to describe a book they like in such a way to make others want to read it. Select a short novel which has been recently made into a film or TV series with which your learners are familiar. In our first Methodology article on Using Literature, there were two sample lesson plans based on an excerpt or a short story. Both followed a similar lesson plan format, outlined below. This sort of lesson plan works well for extracts from stories, poems or extracts from plays.
Devise a warmer that gets students thinking about the topic of the extract or poem. This could take several forms: a short discussion that students do in pairs, a whole class discussion, a guessing game between you and the class or a brainstorming of vocabulary around that topic. Devise a warmer that looks at the source of the literature that will be studied. This stage could be optional, or it may be a part of the warmer.