Front page of The New York Times on Meggs history of graphic design fifth edition pdf Day, 11 November 1918. A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
Most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue. Newspapers developed in the 17th century, as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, and large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly.
News magazines are also weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Public accessibility: Its contents are reasonably accessible to the public, traditionally by the paper being sold or distributed at newsstands, shops, and libraries, and, since the 1990s, made available over the Internet with online newspaper websites. Periodicity: They are published at regular intervals, typically daily or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on newly-emerging news stories or events. Currency: Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule allows.
The degree of up-to-date-ness of a print newspaper is limited by the need of time to print and distribute the newspaper. In major cities, there may be a morning edition and a later edition of the same day’s paper, so that the later edition can incorporate breaking news that have occurred since the morning edition was printed. Universality: Newspapers covers a range of topics, from political and business news to updates on science and technology, arts, culture, and entertainment. In Ancient Rome, Acta Diurna, or government announcement bulletins, were produced. They were carved in metal or stone and posted in public places. In early modern Europe, the increased cross-border interaction created a rising need for information which was met by concise handwritten news-sheets.
The emergence of the new media in the 17th century has to be seen in close connection with the spread of the printing press from which the publishing press derives its name. 1618 was the first to appear in folio- rather than quarto-size. Sweden in 1645, and is the oldest newspaper still in existence, though it now publishes solely online. Diario de Pernambuco, founded in November 1825 is the second oldest circulating newspaper in South America, after El Peruano, founded in October of that same year. In Boston in 1690, Benjamin Harris published Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick.
In 1752, John Bushell published the Halifax Gazette, which claims to be “Canada’s first newspaper. It is sometimes considered one of the earliest newspapers to be published. The history of Middle Eastern newspapers goes back to the 19th century. Many editors were not only journalists but also writers, philosophers and politicians.
The first newspapers in the Ottoman Empire were owned by foreigners living there who wanted to make propaganda about the Western world. The earliest was printed in 1795 by the Palais de France in Pera. Agah Efendi and issued in 1860. In 1830, the first inexpensive “penny press” newspaper came to the market: Lynde M. Penny press papers cost about one sixth the price of other newspapers and appealed to a wider audience, including less educated and lower-income people. Afternoon or evening papers, once common but now scarce, are aimed more at commuters and office workers.
In the United Kingdom, unlike most other countries, “daily” newspapers do not publish on Sundays. Britain, it may be a separate enterprise, e. Daily newspapers are not published on Christmas Day, but weekly newspapers would change their day e. Sunday newspapers are published on Saturday December 24th, Christmas Eve when Christmas Day is falling on Sunday. Weekly newspapers are published once a week, and tend to be smaller than daily papers. Some newspapers are published two or three times a week and are known as biweekly publications.
A local newspaper serves a region such as a city, or part of a large city. Almost every market has one or two newspapers that dominate the area. Large metropolitan newspapers often have large distribution networks, and can be found outside their normal area, sometimes widely, sometimes from fewer sources. Most nations have at least one newspaper that circulates throughout the whole country: a national newspaper. There is also a small group of newspapers which may be characterized as international newspapers. Similarly, in many countries with a large foreign-language-speaking population or many tourists, newspapers in languages other than the national language are both published locally and imported. General newspapers cover all topics, with different emphasis.
Specialised newspapers might concentrate more specifically on, for example, financial matters. For centuries newspapers were printed on paper and supplied physically to readers either by local distribution, or in some cases by mail, for example for British expatriates living in India or Hong Kong who subscribed to British newspapers. As of 2007, virtually all major printed newspapers have online editions distributed over the Internet which, depending on the country may be regulated by journalism organizations such as the Press Complaints Commission in the UK. A new trend in newspaper publishing is the introduction of personalization through on-demand printing technologies or with online news aggregator websites like Google news.
The newspaper has been a part of our daily life for several centuries. They have been a way for the public to be informed of important events that are occurring around the world. Newspapers have undergone dramatic changes over the course of history. Some of the earliest newspapers date back to Ancient Rome where important announcements were carved in stone tablets and placed in highly populated areas where citizens could be informed of the announcements. In the United States, the overall manager or chief executive of the newspaper is the publisher.